Sherlock Holmesとヴィクトリア朝時代のロンドン

0 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930)

  • エディンバラ大学の医科で学び、開業。
  • 患者が来ない暇を使い執筆を開始した。
  • Edinhurgh Univ.  Prof.Bellは、大学時代の恩師で、ワトソンのモデル。


  • はじめに結論を作って書く。
  • 短編は1週間で書いた。
  • 1日3000字”機械的”に書いた。

1 ホームズの魅力



We travelled by the Underground as far as Aldersgate; and a short walk took us to Saxe Coburg Square, the scene of the singular story which we had listenedto in the morning.

The Red-Headed League
※1863年~(Inner) Circle Line

② 投函された日に届いた郵便(当時の郵便制度)

He snatched it from her[Mrs. St Clair] in his eagerness, and smoothing it out upon the table, he drew over the lamp, and examined it intently. I had left my chair, and was gezing at it over his shoulder. The envelop was a very coarse one, and was stamped with Gravesend postmark, and with the date of that very day, or rather of the day before, for it was considerably after midnight.
(“The man with the twisted lip”)

※1840年 切手制度 (日本は1871年)

2 ホームズと『マイ・フェア・レディ』の関連性

Holms と Professor Higgins の類似点


Jeremie Bretの「不思議な縁」とは?

3 麻薬・ホームズ・イギリス社会

a. 世紀末特有の不安と倦怠、退廃と憂愁





John Murray社 Short Stories より

For years I had gradually weaned him from the drug mania which had threatened once to check his remarkable career. Now I knew that under ordinary conditions he no longer craved for this artificial stimulus; but I was well aware that the fiend was not dead, but sleeping; and I have known that the sleep was a light one and the waling near when in periods of idleness I have seen the drawn look upon Holmes’ ascetic face, and the brooding of his deep-set and inscrtable eyes.
( The missing Three-quarter 1904)

Sherlock Holms took his bottle from the corner of mantelpiece, and his hypodermic syringe from its neat morocco case. With his long, white, nervous fingers he adjusted the delicate needle, and rolled back his left shirt-cuff. For some little time his eyes rested thoughtfully upon the sinewy forearm and wrist, all dotted and scarred with innumerable puncture-marks. Finally, he thrust the sharp point home, pressed down the tiny poston, and sank back into the velvet-lined arm-chair with a long sigh of satisfaction.
(The Sign of Four 1890)

b. イギリスにおける当時の麻薬の流布状況



(フリードリヒ.エンゲルス  『イギリスにおける労働者階級の状態』 1845年発表)





アジアにおけるtriangular trade三角貿易(イギリスに有利な取引)triangular trade

Britain(cotton goods)→ India
China(tea, black tea) → Britain


This system of trading – in which goods from Britain were sold for slaves, the slaves sold for cotton and sugar(grown by slaves) on the plantations, and cotton and sugar sold in Britain and made into the goods that were taken to Africa to be exchanged for more slaves – amassed huge profits on each trip and was called the traingular trade. But it’s easier to think of it as a circle…

“The pleasure, glory and grandeur of England has been advanced more by sugar than by any other commodity.”

It was the slave and sugar trades which made Bristol the second city of England for the first 75 years of the eighteenth century…

“There is not a brick in the city but what it is comented with the blood of a slave.”

“It was the price of human flesh and blood that gave us a start in Livepool.”


①Wealth(富):The Industrial Revolution

②peace/war : ennui アンニュイ(倦怠)


  • 中流上層階級の勤勉+道徳的価値観。Pulitan(新教徒)禁欲的。享楽と怠惰を罪悪視。
  • 世間体:respectalitily →上品
  • 様々な問題が増えていた
  • (隠れた)快楽の追求 EdwardIII

④politics → imperialism(領土拡張主義、帝国主義)


1 芥子の実から採れるもの(アヘン・アルカロイド)
2 コカの葉から採れるもの(コカ・アルカロイド)
3 合成(53種)


The Man with the Twisted Lip(『唇のねじれた男』)

ISA WHITNEY, bother of the late Elias Whitney, D.D., Principal of the Theological College of St. George’s, was much addicted to opium. The habit grew upon him, as I understand, from some foolish freak when he was at college, for having read De Quincey’s description of his dreams and sensations, he had drenched his tobacco with laudanum in an attempt to produce the same effects. He found, as so many more have done, that the practice is easier to attain thna to get rid of, and for many years he continued to be a slave to the drug, an avject of mingled horror and pity to his friends and relatives. I can see him now, with yellow, pasty face, drooping lids and pin-point pupils, all hunddled in a chair, the wreck and ruin of a noble man.


Homes: Let me introduce you to Mr.Neville St.Clair, of Lee, in the country of Kent.

Inspector: Great Heaven! … it is, indeed, the missing man. I know him from the photograph.

Boone: And pray what am I charged with?

Homes: No crime, but a very great error has been commiteed. You would have done better to have trusted your wife.

Boone: It was not wife, it was the children… I would not have them ashamed of their father.

Boone: What can I do?


警部「こりゃあ驚いた! こりゃあ疾走したという男じゃありませんか! 写真で見たとおりだ。」




You are the first who have ever heard my story.

…and finally become a reporter on an evening paper in London.

One day my editor wished to have a series of articles upon begging in the metropolis, and I volunteered to supply them.

For seven hours I plied my trade, and when I returned home in the evening I found, to my suprise, that I had received no less than twenty-six shillings and four pence.





※shilling: 1971年まで使用。20分の1ポンド(1/20 pound)

※penny: 1/12 shilling, penseはpennyの複数形

In ten days I had the money, and had paid the debt.

You can imagine how hard it was to settle down to arduous work at two pounds a week, when I knew that I could earn as much in a day by smearing my face with a little paint, laying my cap on the gound, and sitting still.

Well, very soon I found that I was saving considerable sums of money.

As I grew richer I grew more ambitious, took a house in the country, and eventually I married without anyone having a suspocion as to my real occupation.